Abandoned Project

Kappa was a parallel DBMS designed for knowledge information processing (KIPS). The name Kappa is an acronym for Knowledge APPlication oriented Advanced DBMS.

The system is written in a mixture of C and parallelized variant of Prolog called KL1.


Kappa was developed as part of the the "Fifth Generation Computer Systems" initiative in the 1980s by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) to create computers using massively parallel computing and logic programming.

The last version of Kappa was released in 1999.

Data Model


Kappa uses a "nested relational model" that is similar to the document model in that it supported non-scalar values (e.g., arrays, nested records). It is seen as a precursor to object-relational model.

Parallel Execution

Intra-Operator (Horizontal)

Query Interface

Custom API

System Architecture


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