AresDB is a GPU-based real-time analytics database with low memory overhead, real-time upserts with primary key deduplication, and time series aggregations on both streaming and finite dimensional data, including geofences.
Uber began to develop AresDB to replace Elasticsearch as their analytical database, as Elasticsearch used inverted indexes that weren't optimized for Uber's "time range-based storage and filtering," had a lot of unnecessary overhead due to using JSON files for storage, and was JVM-based, meaning it "[did] not support joins and its query execution runs at a higher memory cost." Uber decided to accelerate AresDB with GPUs because they expect GPUs' higher core count, 'greater computational throughput", and "greater compute-to-storage (ALU to GPU global memory) data access throughput (not latency) compared to [CPUs]," will further speed up their analytical queries.
AresDB uses a proprietary execution language called Ares Query Language (AQL) which is based in the JSON format, making it compatible with any language that can handle files and/or JSON.
AresDB uses late materialization for its joins, meaning that it may only physically execute the join once a foreign key is accessed.
AresDB supports hash joins from fact tables (finite set data such as cities) to dimension tables (infinite streaming data such as rides). The database also supports geospatial joins (i.e. geographically bounded area overlap) and normal foreign key joins. Note that AresDB uses late materialization for its joins, meaning the join may not be executed until a foreign key is accessed.
AresDB works with vector batches that are efficiently processed in parallel using the Thrust library.
Data within the archival delay of a table is kept uncompressed in live batches, while everything else is stored in compressed archival batches. If new data is ingested that is outside the archival array, it's added to an archival backfill queue which will be inserted into the archived batches asynchronously.
AresDB supports foreign key joins.
The CPU is only used to load information from storage into CPU memory and to distribute this data to GPU memory. The database system delegates each operator in a query to some GPU, so it's able to handle multiple GPUs by delegating different operations to different GPUs, each of which have completely separate memory. There are plans to implement proper distributed designs, but currently we're limited to a single system with multiple GPUs.
Archived data is sorted in a user specified column order, and files are organized by UTC day and Unix time cutoffs.
Executes queries with the one operation per kernel (OOPK) model.